Sunday, March 15, 2020
Flodden - Battle of Flodden Field Battle of Flodden - Conflict Date: The Battle of Flodden was fought September 9, 1513, during the War of the League of Cambrai (1508-1516). Battle of Flodden - Armies Commanders: Scotland King James IV34,000 men England Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey26,000 men Battle of Flodden - Background: Seeking to honor the Auld Alliance with France, King James IV of Scotland declared war on England in 1513. As the army mustered, it transitioned from the traditional Scottish spear to the modern European pike which was being used to great effect by the Swiss and Germans. While trained by the French Comte dAussi, it is unlikely that the Scots had mastered the weapon and maintaining the tight formations required for its use before moving south. Gathering around 30,000 men and seventeen guns, James crossed the border on August 22 and moved to seize Norham Castle. Battle of Flodden - The Scots Advance: Enduring miserable weather and taking high losses, the Scots succeeded in capturing Norham. In the wake of the success, many, tired of the rain and spreading disease, began to desert. While James loitered in Northumberland, King Henry VIIIs northern army began to gather under the leadership of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey. Numbering around 24,500, Surreys men were equipped with bills, eight-foot long poles with blades at the end made for slashing. Joining his infantry were 1,500 light horsemen under Thomas, Lord Dacre. Battle of Flodden - The Armies Meet: Not wishing the Scots to slip away, Surrey dispatched a messenger to James offering battle on September 9. In an uncharacteristic move for a Scottish king, James accepted stating that he would remain in Northumberland until noon on the appointed day. As Surrey marched, James shifted his army into a fortress-like position atop Flodden, Moneylaws, and Branxton Hills. Forming a rough horseshoe, the position could only be approached from the east and required crossing the River Till. Reaching the Till Valley on September 6, Surrey immediately recognized the strength of the Scottish position. Again dispatching a messenger, Surrey chastised James for taking such a strong position and invited him to do battle on the nearby plains around Milfield. Refusing, James wished to fight a defensive battle on his own terms. With his supplies dwindling, Surrey was compelled to choose between abandoning the area or attempting a flanking march to the north and west to force the Scots out of their position. Opting for the latter, his men began crossing the Till at Twizel Bridge and Milford Ford on September 8. Reaching a position above the Scots, they turned south and deployed facing Branxton Hill. Due to continued stormy weather, James did not become aware of the English maneuver until sometime around noon on September 9. As a result, he began shifting his entire army to Branxton Hill. Formed in five divisions, Lord Hume and the Early of Huntly led the left, the Earls of Crawford and Montrose the left center, James the right center, and the Earls of Argyll and Lennox the right. The Earl of Bothwells division was held in reserve to the rear. Artillery was placed in the spaces between the divisions. At the base of the hill and across a small stream, Surrey deployed his men in similar fashion. Battle of Flodden - Disaster for the Scots: Around 4:00 in the afternoon, James artillery opened fire on the English position. Consisting largely of siege guns, they did little damage. On the English side, Sir Nicholas Appelbys twenty-two guns replied with great effect. Silencing the Scottish artillery, they began a devastating bombardment of James formations. Unable to withdraw over the crest without risking a panic, James continued to take losses. To his left, Hume and Huntly elected to begin the action without orders. Moving their men down the least steep part of the hill, their pikemen advanced toward Edmund Howards troops. Hampered by the severe weather, Howards archers fired with little effect and his formation was shattered by Hume and Huntlys men. Driving through the English, their formation began to dissolve and their advance was checked by Dacres horsemen. Seeing this success, James directed Crawford and Montrose to move forward and began advancing with his own division. Unlike the first attack, these divisions were forced to descend a steep slope which began to open their ranks. Pressing on, additional momentum was lost in crossing the stream. Reaching the English lines, Crawford and Montroses men were disorganized and the bills of Thomas Howard, the Lord Admirals men slashed into their ranks and cut the heads from the Scottish pikes. Forced to rely on swords and axes, the Scots took frightful losses as they were unable to engage the English as close range. To the right, James had some success and pushed back the division led by Surrey. Halting the Scottish advance, James men soon faced a situation similar to Crawford and Montrose. On the right, Argyle and Lennoxs Highlanders remained in position watching the battle. As a result, they failed to notice the arrival of Edward Stanleys division on their front. Though the Highlanders were in a strong position, Stanley saw that it could be flanked to the east. Sending forward a portion of his command to hold the enemy in place, the remainder made a concealed movement to the left and up the hill. Unleashing a massive arrow storm on the Scots from two directions, Stanley was able to force them to flee the field. Seeing Bothwells men advancing to support the king, Stanley reformed his troops and along with Dacre attacked the Scottish reserve from the rear. In a brief fight they were driven off and the English descended on the rear of the Scottish lines. Under attack on three sides, the Scots battled on with James falling in the fighting. By 6:00 PM much of the fighting had ended with the Scots retreating east over the ground held by Hume and Huntly. Battle of Flodden - Aftermath: Unaware of the magnitude of his victory, Surrey remained in place overnight. The next morning, Scottish horsemen were spotted on Branxton Hill but were quickly driven away. The remnants of the Scottish army limped back across the River Tweed. In the fighting at Flodden, the Scots lost around 10,000 men including James, nine earls, fourteen Lords of Parliament, and the Archbishop of St. Andrews. On the English side, Surrey lost around 1,500 men, most from Edmund Howards division. The largest battle in terms of numbers fought between the two nations, it was also Scotlands worst ever military defeat. It was believed at the time that every noble family in Scotland lost at least one person at Flodden. Selected Sources North East England History Pages: Battle of Flodden FieldElectric Scotland: Battle of FloddenUK Battlefields Resource Centre: Battle of Flodden
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Do tax cuts increase tax revenues - Essay Example 1). This measure has led to increased investment and job creation in the American market over the past few years. Cutting taxes may lead to increased or decreased revenue depending on the duration in which the tax cuts are applied. During an economic boom, an increase in taxes leads to increased revenue for a country. A tax increase may, however, harm the economy in the long run as people may feel the burden imposed on them and shy away from doing business in the country as noted by Sowell (2012, p. 7), an economist and senior fellow at the Ã Hoover Institution Stanford University Stanford, . This implies that increased taxes will increase revenue in the short run but decrease revenue will do so in the long run. For instance, when President ClintonÃ¢â¬â¢s administration got rid of trade tariffs on Chinese goods, the American market were flooded with Chinese goods. This led to an increase in business and consequently tax revenues increased. However, taxes paid by Americans increased to a level that many of them got discouraged from risking their money in business. This led to a recession whi ch the American economy suffers to-date. When taxes are low, many people do not feel the tax burden and are, therefore, encouraged to risk their money in business and are encouraged to comply with tax laws (Hungerford 2012). If many people invest in business and earn dividends, they will contribute a lot in revenue to the economy as opposed to if fewer people were involved (Sowell 2012, p.5). With a lower tax burden, people grow richer faster and consequently move to a higher tax brackets which mean increased revenue for the government. Furthermore, when more people invest, many of them grow richer and consequently pay more taxes which translates to more revenue. A specialist in public finance, Hungerford notes that the revenue generated by an economy that has lower tax rates is often much higher than that that generated by higher tax rates (Hungerford 2012, p. 15).
Tuesday, February 11, 2020
No texting on your cell phone while driving - Essay Example Many new rules and regulations have been issued to prevent this matter in most parts of the world. This position paper focuses on the idea that people should not do texting on their cell phones while driving it is injuries for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. This statement is supported by concentrating on three main pointÃ¢â¬â¢s i.e. distracted driving videos, laws and rules of using cell phones and college studentÃ¢â¬â¢s perception on texting. 1.2 Distracted driving Distracted driving is very risky and injuries for peoples life. Many videos on distracted driving have been launched by US transportation in order to create awareness among people. According to agency group (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"Faces of distracted driving is mainly a series of video which focuses on the dangerous consequences of texting on cell phone while driving.Ã¢â¬ This means that use of cell phone and texting has become quite common among people while driving and leads to accidents. In 2009, around half a million people got inj ured and 5,500 people died due to texting on cell phone while driving. Many websites are encouraging to upload distracting videos in order to educate people of the society about the threats related to texting while driving such as USDOT, face book, you tube etc. Video US department of transportation introduced a video on the facts of distracted driving. This video concentrated on Brown family, emphasizing on their 17 years old daughter, Alex. She got killed in an accident in 2009; the reason was that she was doing text message on cell phone while driving in Texas. This family also appeared on ABC extreme makeover: Home Edition in order to raise the awareness of dangers related to distracted driving, so that this thing does not happen in any other family. Presidential order on distracted driving US president gave an order on distracted driving in December 2009, which prohibited four million employees from doing text messages on cell phone while using government vehicles. This order w as passed to make people familiarize of the dangers of distracted driving (Agency Group, 2009). 1.3 Laws and rules Some of the laws and regulations made in relation to texting on cell phone while driving are described below: FRA (Federal Railroad Administration) passed a rule to prohibit the use of cell phones to rail employees while they are on duty. This rule was issued after the rail crash in California which killed 25 people. FMCA (Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration) passed a rule in September 2010 in which text messaging on cell is prohibited while using a commercial motor vehicle. PHMSA (Pipeline and Hazardous Material Safety Administration) restricted the use of any electronic device during driving a motor vehicle in December 2010 (Agency Group, 2011). Most recently, in January 2010, a federal guidance was issued by US transportation secretary in which commercial vehicles such as busses and trucks drivers were prohibited from texting messages while driving and if any one was caught in doing this practice a penalty of $2,750 would be charged on the driver. Eighteen states have banned texting messages while drivers from November 2009. Most of them have imposed fine on drivers who are caught texting while driving. 1.4 College students and text messaging Presently College students are frequent drivers. Large numbers of students drive by their own to go to colleges and universities. According to Harrison Marissa A, (2011). Ã¢â¬Å"It has been identified that 91% of college students do text messages while
Friday, January 31, 2020
Understanding the Principles and Practises of Assessment Essay Assessment is the process of measuring the achievement of learners. It is an obvious way of checking that learning has taken place and is a good way of measuring the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and practical skills that they have learnt. It is important for the assessor to initially establish whether the learner has any specific learning needs so that they can prepare to support the learner in whichever way they feel necessary. Learning and development are closely connected. The learner needs guidance in order to understand what it is they are required to learn, also to check that they are on track and also ways in which they can improve. This is generally where formative assessment comes into play. Formative assessment is used whilst learners are developing their skills and can also be useful throughout their course. It gives the assessor the opportunity to provide the learner with constructive feedback which they can use to improve their future performances. It also allows the learner to build on their strengths and learn from mistakes by listening to the assessorÃ¢â¬â¢s feedback, preparing them for summative assessment. Summative assessment is used when the students are up to a standard where they can carry out an assessment without any support or guidance. This should be up to industry standards and completed to commercial timing. By this stage there should be very few, if any areas for improvement and the learner must have a very strong underpinning knowledge of the subject. (AC 1.2) Define the key concepts and principles of assessment It is vital that assessment has to be fair, consistent and valid to ensure all learners have an equal chance of receiving a fair assessment. An assessor should not be swayed to give a learner an easier assessment because they favour them or on grounds of gender, race, sexual orientation or religious beliefs; the assessment process should be the same for every learner and purely judged on their knowledge, skill and competence within their subject area. There may be occasions where the assessment process has to be adapted to suit learnersÃ¢â¬â¢ individual needs; however this still should eventually lead to the same outcome. In order for an assessment to be fair the assessor should clearly identify to the learner what outcomes are being assessed so that there is no area for confusion between the learner and assessor. Assessors should take guidance from the awarding body that they work alongside for the assessment criteria, for example in my area of work; I have to abide by the criteri a that is set out by VTCT. To ensure that the evidence is sufficient the learner should successfully cover all of the criteria set out by the awarding body and by the industry in which they are working. The most reliable way to ensure that an assessment is valid and reliable is for the assessor to observe a student first hand. This is the clearest way for the assessor to be sure that the student possesses the knowledge that is shown in their work and that it has not been copied from another source. This evidence should also be current, so therefore the assessor would need to have witnessed this within a reasonable timeframe as things change so frequently. It is important for assessors to ensure that they are up to date with current trends and changes within their industry and all assessors are required to keep up to date with continual professional development. It is also vital that all assessors are assessing to the same standard, this is usually monitored and updated during team standardisation meetings whic h should be carried out regularly. (AC 1.3) Explain the responsibilities of the assessor An assessor should firstly fully understand the standards and requirements they are working to. This means that all assessors should be fully qualified to the required standard within their industry and should regularly attend team standardisation meetings to ensure they are assessing to the same standards as other assessors.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Sue and Arabella in Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure Thomas Hardy's diary contains an entry that explains how he will show the world something it needs to be shown in a story about a poor, struggling young man who has to deal with ultimate failure (Howe 132). This brief description of a story has turned into Hardy's phenomenal Jude the Obscure. Jude is emotionally torn between the two main women in the novel, Sue and Arabella, because each woman can only partially satisfy his urges. The stark difference in emotion, conversation, and sexual appetite make Sue and Arabella polar opposites in Hardy's Jude the Obscure. Jude is ripped between the pure sexuality of Arabella and the pure intellect of Sue (Draper 252). Ronald P. Draper writes that Jude is sexually more comfortable with Arabella so, in this sense, she is Jude?s true partner (252). ?Arabella represents the classical entrapment by sex: the entrapment of an ?innocent? sensual man by a hard, needy, shackling woman? (Hardwick 69). Bernard D. N. Grebanier goes even farther, saying that Arabella with stop at nothing to get Jude (713). Sue is a complicated mesh of sexual aversion and the power of female intellect (Hardwick 68). As Elizabeth Hardwick puts it, Sue ?thinks and that is her mystery? (67). Sue has radical ideas, especially for a woman, and it is commonplace for her to question society and it?s problems (Hardwick 68). Sue, to Jude?s dismay, also dismisses much of religion (Hardwick 68). The sacred act of marriage is questioned in Jude the Obscure (Saldivar 192). Marriage is seen as an institution open to criticism that is violated by need, chance, and the choices made by the characters (Hardwick 68). For Sue, violations in wholeness and freedom are agoni... ... K. Hall & Company, 1990. 243-254. Grebanier, Bernard D. N. The Essentials of English Literature. Volume Two. New York: Barron?s Educational Series, Incorporated, 1948. Hardwick, Elizabeth. ?Sue and Arabella.? The Genius of Thomas Hardy. Margaret Drabble. New York: George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited, 1976. 67-73. Hardy, Thomas. Jude the Obscure. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. Howe, Irving. Masters of World Literature: Thomas Hardy. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1967. Saldivar, Ramon. ?Jude the Obscure: Redaing and the Spirit of the Law.? Modern Critical Views: Thomas Hardy.Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 191-205. Weinstein, Philip M. The Spirit Unappeased and Peregrine?: Jude the Obscure.? Critical Essays on Thomas Hardy: The Novels. Dale Kramer. New York: G. K. Hall & Company, 1990. 228-243. Sue and Arabella in Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure Essay -- Thomas Ha Sue and Arabella in Thomas Hardy's Jude the Obscure Thomas Hardy's diary contains an entry that explains how he will show the world something it needs to be shown in a story about a poor, struggling young man who has to deal with ultimate failure (Howe 132). This brief description of a story has turned into Hardy's phenomenal Jude the Obscure. Jude is emotionally torn between the two main women in the novel, Sue and Arabella, because each woman can only partially satisfy his urges. The stark difference in emotion, conversation, and sexual appetite make Sue and Arabella polar opposites in Hardy's Jude the Obscure. Jude is ripped between the pure sexuality of Arabella and the pure intellect of Sue (Draper 252). Ronald P. Draper writes that Jude is sexually more comfortable with Arabella so, in this sense, she is Jude?s true partner (252). ?Arabella represents the classical entrapment by sex: the entrapment of an ?innocent? sensual man by a hard, needy, shackling woman? (Hardwick 69). Bernard D. N. Grebanier goes even farther, saying that Arabella with stop at nothing to get Jude (713). Sue is a complicated mesh of sexual aversion and the power of female intellect (Hardwick 68). As Elizabeth Hardwick puts it, Sue ?thinks and that is her mystery? (67). Sue has radical ideas, especially for a woman, and it is commonplace for her to question society and it?s problems (Hardwick 68). Sue, to Jude?s dismay, also dismisses much of religion (Hardwick 68). The sacred act of marriage is questioned in Jude the Obscure (Saldivar 192). Marriage is seen as an institution open to criticism that is violated by need, chance, and the choices made by the characters (Hardwick 68). For Sue, violations in wholeness and freedom are agoni... ... K. Hall & Company, 1990. 243-254. Grebanier, Bernard D. N. The Essentials of English Literature. Volume Two. New York: Barron?s Educational Series, Incorporated, 1948. Hardwick, Elizabeth. ?Sue and Arabella.? The Genius of Thomas Hardy. Margaret Drabble. New York: George Weidenfeld and Nicolson Limited, 1976. 67-73. Hardy, Thomas. Jude the Obscure. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983. Howe, Irving. Masters of World Literature: Thomas Hardy. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1967. Saldivar, Ramon. ?Jude the Obscure: Redaing and the Spirit of the Law.? Modern Critical Views: Thomas Hardy.Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987. 191-205. Weinstein, Philip M. The Spirit Unappeased and Peregrine?: Jude the Obscure.? Critical Essays on Thomas Hardy: The Novels. Dale Kramer. New York: G. K. Hall & Company, 1990. 228-243.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
One of the best methods to help us clarify our thoughts about a character, an event, a poem, a storyÃ¢â¬ânearly anythingÃ¢â¬âis to compare and contrast. (To compare can mean to find similarities and differences. Coupled with contrast, however, to compare means to point out similarities, while to contrast means to point out differences.) Many of us, feeling weighted down by cares, have happened to see someone coping with a much greater burden or handicapÃ¢â¬âand suddenly our problems become insignificant in comparison. Seeing how our situation relates to anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s, we have gained perspective. The only way to have that perspective is by viewing things in relation to one anotherÃ¢â¬âby comparing and contrasting. Considering two characters, for example, can help us think more effectively about each. (Authors frequently invite such comparison by including a character foil in a storyÃ¢â¬âa character who serves to emphasize the attributes of another character because t he two are so different.) LetÃ¢â¬â¢s consider, specifically, Rainsford, the protagonist of Richard ConnellÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"The Most Dangerous Game,Ã¢â¬ and the unnamed protagonist in Jack LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"To Build A Fire.Ã¢â¬ How are the two men comparable? Each confronts a life-threatening situation. Rainsford is chased by the fanatical Zaroff, and LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist combats the extreme cold of theYukon. Each fights down panic and acts swiftly and decisively. Rainsford sets traps for his pursuers and finally tricks Zaroff; the man in theYukon quickly builds a fire after his feet are soaked. Each denies the suggestion of an acquaintance: Rainsford tells Whitney that hunted creatures have no feelings, and LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist ignores the old-timerÃ¢â¬â¢s advice. And each man learns, as a result of his ordeal, that he has been wrong. On the other hand, the men are different in several ways. LondonÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist does not have sufficient foresight to realize, in the first place, that he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be out alone in such cold, and second, that he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t build his fire under a tree. He fails to overcome the crisis that he brings on himself, and as a result, he dies. Rainsford, however, fallsÃ into his ordeal quite by chance, by tumbling from the ship. He refuses to sacrifice his principles to extricate himself from the crisis: he tells Zaroff that hunting men is murder pure and simple. Once he realizes the game he must play, he plays it with great cunning, and he triumphs. As illustrated in the two preceding paragraphs, there are two ways to write a paragraph of comparison or contrast. As in the first of the paragraphs, we can shuttle back and forth: A is similar to or different from B in one respect; A is to B in a second respect; A is to B in a third respect; and so on. On the other hand, as in the second of the paragraphs, we can write in a block about one of the items under consideration (A) and then about the other (B). Neither way is better, though the shuttle method is a bit more demanding since it requires that we have matching statements about the pair under consideration. Even if we use the block method, we should try to list corresponding details in the same order in both parts of the paragraph; we also need to be sure to provide a link between our discussion of A and B. In any case, a well-organized comparison, whether focusing on literature or something else, is a powerful way to illuminate both the items that we are considering. Ã¢â¬âAn Addendum to Jim StoverÃ¢â¬â¢s Discussion about Comparisons (Bob Fulton) Sometimes it is helpful to indicate to your reader what you feel is more significant, the similarities you have discovered between the two things you are comparing or their differences. Consider now two other fictional characters, Goodman Brown from HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman BrownÃ¢â¬ and the narrator from PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale Heart.Ã¢â¬ After you have listed as many similarities and differences as you can in preparing to write a comparison paragraph between these two characters, you may decide that the differences you have found are far less significant or interesting than the similarities. Because you are developing a comparison, you are obliged to acknowledge that there are, indeed, differences between Goodman Brown and PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator. (If you were to focus exclusively on the similarities these characters share, your reader might suppose that you had entirely overlooked their differences and that, as a consequence, your essay or paragraph mustÃ be flawed and therefore without merit.) But you also want to make clear to the reader your sense that the similarities outweigh the differences. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s the solution? Here is a suggestion. Start your paragraph with a topic sentence: Although there are striking differences between Goodman Brown, the central character of Nathaniel HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"Young Goodman Brown,Ã¢â¬ and the narrator of Edgar Allen PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale Heart,Ã¢â¬ the similarities between these two figures suggest a central point about protagonists in nineteenth-century American fiction: they tend to isolate themselves from others through their obsessive behaviors. Then go on to introduce differences: At first inspection, Goodman Brown and PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s narrator appear to be quite unlike each other. The narrative Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ of Ã¢â¬Å"The Tell-Tale HeartÃ¢â¬ is a crazed murderer with no apparent friends or acquaintances other than the old man he kills and butchers. Goodman Brown, by contrast, is a member of the community, married, with children, and, at his worst, a silent grouch. Murder never crosses his mind. The narrative Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ of PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s story seems eager to share the fact of his murderous crime with the police who come to his apartment, whereas Goodman Brown has no desire to tell anyone in his village what he thought he saw and did on the night he ventured into the woods. Now get to the central issue, how these two characters share very important similarities: Nevertheless, these two characters are twin brothers at heart. Each is desperately concerned with sin and evil. PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ cannot resist the pull which draws him to the old manÃ¢â¬â¢s bedroom. He cannot resist the urge to illuminate Ã¢â¬Å"the vulture eye.Ã¢â¬ Likewise, Goodman Brown will not put off his journey into the woods, even though his wife of three months begs him to remain at home. He must press on to face wickedness itself. The behavior of each is absolutely determined by this concern to uncover theÃ mystery of evil and deal with it. And this obsession isolates PoeÃ¢â¬â¢s narrative Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ and HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s Goodman Brown from their fellow creatures. In their obsessive behavior these characters are linked with other figures in nineteenth-century American fictionÃ¢â¬âCaptain Ahab, for instance, in Herman MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Moby-Dick, Bartelby in MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby the Scrivener,Ã¢â¬ Natty Bumppo in James F enimore CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"LeatherstockingÃ¢â¬ novels, and Arthur Dimmesdale in HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Scarlet Letter. If you were to write an essay comparing these two stories, the topic sentence I have written for the paragraph above would serve as your thesis statement for the comparison essay. Put your thesis statement at the top of your introductory paragraphÃ¢â¬âthatÃ¢â¬â¢s right, the thesis statement is your first sentenceÃ¢â¬âthen go on to write a topic sentence for each of the paragraphs in the body of your essay. These topic sentences become the second, third, fourth, etc., sentences of your introductory paragraph In the last sentence of the introduction, sow a seed for the final paragraph of your essay, a Ã¢â¬Å"so-what?Ã¢â¬ paragraph. This paragraph IS NOT A CONCLUSION. Instead, it answers the question Ã¢â¬Å"So what?Ã¢â¬ Imagine someone asking you to explain why you wrote the comparison you did. Your response is to put your analysis in a context. Using the above example, I might say: Ã¢â¬Å"In their obsessive behavior these characters are linked with other figures in ninete enth-century American fictionÃ¢â¬âCaptain Ahab, for instance, in Herman MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Moby-Dick, Bartelby in MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Bartleby the Scrivener,Ã¢â¬ Natty Bumppo in James Fenimore CooperÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"LeatherstockingÃ¢â¬ novels, and Arthur Dimmesdale in HawthorneÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The Scarlet Letter.Ã¢â¬ To avoid repetition, when you write the body paragraphs, paraphrase the topic sentences which you have already placed in your introduction to avoid repeating them verbatim in the body of your essay. Each of these paraphrased topic sentences should govern what goes into their paragraphs in the body of the paper. Likewise, when you come to the Ã¢â¬Å"so-what?Ã¢â¬ paragraph, paraphrase the seed sentence you wrote at the end of your introductory paragraph. This paraphrase of the seed sentence is the focus of your essayÃ¢â¬â¢s final paragraph, the paragraph which answers the question Ã¢â¬Å"So what?Ã¢â¬ You should not be surprised if this final paragraph is longer and moreÃ detailed than any of the body paragraphs. After all, it is meant to open up for your reader a wider perspective than the body of your essay can provide.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Hungarians who migrated after World War II were refugees who came to Australia looking for a better life and in doing so significantly contributed to the country by not only offering their culture to the development of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s multiculturalism but by also contributing to the academic and artistic life of Australia. The main reason for Hungarian immigration to Australia was the Hungarian Revolution that followed the disaster of World War II. In Australia the Hungarians quickly proved their dedication to making the most of their new life in Australia and in doing so, contributed to the development of Australian society. The Hungarian migrants who came to Australia after World War II were mainly refugees following the HungarianÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Naturally many Hungarians fled during the revolution and so 200 000 fled to Western Europe to escape persecution. Australia, along with more than ten other countries, reached out to the Hungarian refugees and offered settlement assistance to approximately 14 000 refugees (History Learning Site, n.d). Another factor that influenced Hungarian refugeesÃ¢â¬â¢ immigrationt to Australia was that Australia was the furthest country away from the Soviet Union that were able to escape to because of their desperation. The Hungarian refugees came to Australia during the end of the policy of assimilation and so when they arrived in Australia they were warmly greeted, as shown in this photograph. Society was welcoming to the migrants and were supportive of them because of HungaryÃ¢â¬â¢s current situation. The Hungarian migrants had a relatively smooth integration into Australia and they were highly accepting of the Australian culture because of the amount of support they had received from the government and society. However some Australians were still racist towards the Hungarians and isolated them in the work place. When the migrants arrived they were offered two yearlong work contracts in chosen jobs. This was done by the government to quickly turn their new recruits into working, taxpaying citizens of Australia. Unfortunately, there were